1. Camber is the deviation of a side edge from a straight edge. Measurement
is taken by placing a straight edge on the concave side of a sheet and
measuring the distance between the sheet edge and the straight edge in the
center of the arc. Camber is caused by one side being elongated more than
the other due to improper heating, differential expansion or contraction,
improper alignment on the hot beds or faulty setting of the rolls.
2. The hook or dogleg near the ends of a coil.
Camber Tolerances
Camber is the deviation from edge straightness. Maximum allowable tolerance
of this deviation of a side edge from a straight line are defined in ASTM
Can Dimensions
Can measurements are expressed in inches and sixteenths of inches in a kind
of shorthand. The standard 12 ounce beverage can, for example, is described
as 211 by 413, which translates to a 2 11/16 inches in diameter by 4 13/16
inched in height. When a two piece can is described as 211/209/413, this
means 2 11/16 inches in diameter, necked in at the top to a 2 9/16 inches
by a 4 13/16 inches in height.
Normal ability to produce steel in a given time period. This rating should
include maintenance requirements, but because such service is scheduled to
match the needs of the machinery (not those of the calendar), a mill might
run at more than 100% of capacity one month and then fall well below rated
capacity as maintenance is performed. 
Engineered Capacity The theoretical volume of a mill, given its constraints
of raw material supply and normal working speed. 
True Capacity Volume at full utilization, allowing for the maintenance of
equipment and reflecting current material constraints. (Bottlenecks of
supply and distribution can change over time--capacity will expand or
Capped Steel
It is a rimming steel in which the depth of the rim is controlled by
arresting the rimming action, at the appropriate time. The rimming action
can be arrested mechanically by putting a heavy steel plate on the top of
the surface of the ingot (mechanical capping), or can be stopped by killing
by the addition of decoxidizers on the ingot top (chemical capping). The
rimming action can also be stopped by spraying water on the top of the
Capping (of Abrasive Particle)
A mechanism of deterioration of abrasive points in which the point become
covered by caps of adherent abrasion debris.
Carbon Electrodes
Made from calcined petroleum coke or calcined low-ash anthracite coke,
carbon electrodes are widely used in submerged-arc furnaces for the
manufacture of ferroalloys, silicon metal, aluminum, calcium carbide,
phosphorus, and so on because of their infusibility, chemical inertness,
electrical conductivity, mechanical strength, and resistance to thermal
Carbon Steel
An unalloyed steel. Steel that has properties made up mostly of the element
carbon and which relies on the carbon content for structure. Most of the
steel produced in the world is carbon steel. The plain carbon steels may
also be classified on the basis of carbon content as hypoeutectoid (carbon
content below the eutectoid value of 0.80%) or hypereutectoid (carbon
content above this value)
A case hardening process in which a suitable ferrous material is heated
above the lower transformation temperature in a gaseous atmosphere having a
composition that results in simultaneous absorption of carbon and nitrogen
by the surface and by diffusion, creates a concentration gradient. The
process is completed by cooling at a rate that produces the desired
properties in the workpiece.
A process of introducing carbon into the surface of a solid piece of steel
by heating and holding above the transformation temperature in contact with
a suitable source of carbon which may be a solid, liquid or gas. On
quenching after carburizing, the high-carbon ‘case’ becomes
very hard, while the low-carbon core remains comparatively soft.
Cardboard Drum
Cardboard insert placed on the reel around which the coil is wound. The
drum is used to eliminate damage in the center of the coil.
That portion of a ferrous alloy, extending inward from surface whose
composition has been altered during case hardening. Typically considered to
be the portion of an alloy
(a) whose composition has been measurably altered from original
(b) that appeared dark when etched,
(c) that has a higher hardness value than the core.
Cased Tube
A close-joint tube of steel over which a close-joint or seamless or welded
tube of another metal is drawn.
Case Hardening
The surface hardening processes which involve a change in chemical
composition of the surface portion. They include carburizing, in which the
carbon content of the surface portions is locally increased; nitriding, in
which the nitrogen content of the surface portions is increased; and
carbonitriding, in which both the carbon and nitrogen contents are
Casing (Oil Well Casing)
Tubes used for lining bore holes to prevent caving in of the surrounding
strata and the undesired entry of water.
Casing is the structural retainer for the walls of oil and gas wells.
Casing is used to prevent contamination of both the surrounding water table
and the well itself. Casing lasts the life of a well and is not usually
removed when a well is closed.
Cast (Heat or Melt)
Usually the product of a single furnace charge. Sometimes the furnace
contents are tapped into two or more ladles when the product of each ladle
may be called a separate cast. In the Bessemer process, a cast is also
known as a blow.
Refractory concretes made with calcium aluminate (CA) cements and various
refractory aggregates uses in various locations like coke oven battery,
tundish covers and in soaking pit construction.
Cast Iron
An alloy essentially of iron and carbon containing more than 2 percent
carbon (usually between 2.5 and 4 percent). It also contains silicon,
manganese, sulphur and phosphorus in varying amounts. The character of cast
iron is controlled by the manner in which carbon is present, and the
fractured surface of cast iron exhibits characteristic colour, namely
white, mottle, or grey, depending on whether carbon is present wholly in
combined state (as carbide) or partly in combined state or wholly in the
form of graphite.
Pouring or teeming molten metal into moulds. This also refers to metal
objects so procured.
Casting Ladle
A refractory lined receptacle in which liquid steel is received from the
furnace for teeming purpose.
Cast Structure
The metallographic structure of a casting evidenced by shape and
orientation of grains as well as segregation of impurities.
Casting Shrinkage
Contraction of a casting during solidification and subsequent cooling to
ambient temperature.
Cast Steel
The term is used for steel castings.
Catastrophic Wear
Rapidly occurring or accelerating surface damage, deterioration, or change
of shape caused by wear to such a degree that the service life of a part is
appreciably shortened or its function is destroyed.
Catch Weight Coil
A coil of non-standard weight
Cathodic Sodium Dichromate
A common treatment applied to passivate the surface of electrolytic tin
plate against the formation of tin oxides.
Cauliflower Top
Ingot top, characterized by numerous bulges (like a cauliflower) found in
semi-killed / rimming steel ingots. This is caused by the bleeding of
metals, when it has reached a mushy stage
Caustic Cracking
A form of stress corrosion cracking most frequently encountered in carbon
steels or iron-chromium-nickel alloys that are exposed to concentrated
hydroxide solutions at temperatures of 200 to 250oC. Also known as caustic
Cavitation Damage
Erosion of a solid surface through the formation and collapse of cavities
in an adjacent liquid. Also known as cavitation erosion.
A very hard and brittle compound of iron and carbon (Fe3C). It is
characterised by orthorhombic crystal structure. Its occurrence as a phase
in the steel alters chemical composition by presence of manganese and other
carbide forming elements.
Center Buckle
A condition in the band of steel where the center (in the direction of
rolling) is longer than the edges and has a wave or buckle.
Chafing Fatigue
Fatigue initiated in a surface damaged by rubbing against another body.
The removal of sharp edges (the term is practically synonymous with
'bevelling' but has a less restricted application.
When the percentage of fines in the blast furnace burden material increases
significantly, too much of the burden will be deposited directly below the
rim of the bell and very little will reach the walls. As a result, the
ratio of burden to coke will be very low near the walls and, since the
permeability there will increase because of the increased percentage of
coke, the flow of hot gas along the walls will significantly increase. This
is termed as channelling and causes excessive heating of the walls.
Channelling is no longer a major problem because of changes in furnace top
design, charging sequence, and raw material preparation.
Materials charged in a furnace for producing steel. For example, iron ore,
coke and limestone are charged into a Blast Furnace; a Basic Oxygen Furnace
is charged with scrap and hot metal. Also, the act of loading material into
a vessel.
Charging Box (Charging Basket)
Cast or fabricated steel or cast iron box used for charging material in
steel making furnace. Charging basket is fabricated with a false bottom
steel container for charging scrap in electric furnace.
Charging Machine (Charger)
A ground or overhead travelling machine used for charging scrap in the
steel making furnace such as open hearth.
Charging on the Main
To prevent escape of gases from the coke ovens during charging of coke, a
steam-jet aspirator is used to draw gases from the space above the charged
coal into the collector main. This practice is called 'charging on the
A coating defect consisting of the washboard appearance of the cured film
with variations of color or opacity. "Gear marks" is another
synonym when the defect is caused by the gear lash of the coating machine.
Chattering occurs when the coating machine permits the uneven application
of the coating.
Checked Edges
Cracked edges in sheet bars and strips occurring during hot-rolling.
A coating defect consisting of the cracking of the cured film into small
segments, with hairline cracks separating the segments. The similar defects
of mud cracking or alligatoring are the same as checking, but they are
larger. Crazing is a synonymous term.
A roughly cylindrical forging with convex sides formed by upending ingot or
billet lengths between flat tools.
Chemical Treatment
A customer-specified rust inhibitor applied to the coated product. 2. A
passivating chemical treatment normally applied to the steel surface to
control oxide formation and growth.
Chemically Brightened
A chemical addition made to the plating bath that results in a coating with
a bright appearance as opposed to the mechanically brightened surface
The chemical composition of steel indicating the amount of carbon,
manganese, sulfur, phosphorous and a host of other elements.
An external zone of cementitic iron without appreciable graphite.
Chill Factor
The temperature change in degrees Celcius when one kilogram of addition
agent is added to one metric ton of liquid steel and, in FPS units, the
temperature change in degrees Fahrenheit caused by the addition of one
pound of addition agent to one net ton of liquid steel.
Chill Cracks
Marks on a rolled surface resulting from cracks in the surface of a roll
used for hot rolling. A particular form of roll mark. Surface cracks found
on rolls are usually caused by alternate heating and cooling or by
overheating of the rolls in service, in which case they are called fire
Chilled Spring Wire
Wire drawn from quenched and age hardened mild steel.
Removing surface defects by manual or pneumatic chisel.
A defect caused by metal being scrapped from the side of forging and
hammered into the surface.
A neutral refractory which is a double oxide of chromium and iron. The term
is also used for a mineral containing chromic oxide and iron oxide.
An alloying element that is the essential stainless steel raw material for
conferring corrosion resistance. A film of chromium oxide that naturally
forms on the surface of stainless steel self-repairs in the presence of
oxygen if the steel is damaged mechanically or chemically, and thus
prevents corrosion from occurring.
The molten by-products produced in furnace used for bushelling or
reheating. The chemical composition varies but is essentially silicate of
Cinder Notch
Another name for slag notch.
Cinder Patch
This defect is the result of pick-up of material from soaking-pit bottoms,
and generally has the appearance of a very scrabby bottom.
What A gas-based process developed by Lurgi Metallurgie in Germany to
produce DRI or HBI (see Direct Reduced Iron and Hot Briquetted Iron). 
How The two-stage method yields fines with a 93% iron content. Iron ore
fines pass first through a circulating fluidized-bed reactor, and
subsequently through a bubbling fluidized-bed reactor.
What Method of applying a stainless steel / copper / aluminum coating to
carbon steel or lower-alloy steel (i.e., steel with alloying element
content below 5%). 
Why To increase corrosion resistance at lower initial cost than exclusive
use of stainless steel etc. 
How By (1) welding stainless steel onto carbon steel,
(2) pouring melted stainless steel around a solid carbon steel slab in a
(3) placing a slab of carbon steel between two plates of stainless steel
and bonding them by rolling at high temperature on a plate mill,
(4) mounting the steel core in a covered mould and heating it out of
contact with air to a temperature slightly above the melting point of
copper, which then is cast about it,
(5) dipping the solid steel core into a bath of molten copper,
(6) depositing the copper on steel core electrolytically,
(7) rolling flat steel almost to gauge, cleaning it thoroughly and either
placing it between two sheets of aluminum and cold rolling or heating to
between 315o and 400oC and rolling.
Class 1 Surface Quality
A class of cold rolled steel processed to meet requirements for controlled
surface texture, flatness, and temper requirements. Produced for exposed
Cleaning Tank
This section of the plater is used to remove dirt, oil, grease, oxides and
other contaminates from the surface of material to be electroplated. A
cleaning agent is used at a temperature of 180-190 degrees.
For internal steel quality, a measure of the size and frequency of
inclusions; for external steel surface quality, a measure of the amount of
extraneous materials (such as dirt, iron particles, carbon, etc.) on the
steel surface.
Clean Steel
Steel which is obtained after secondary steel making (also referred to as
Ladle Metallurgy') and satisfies stringent requirements of surface,
internal and micro-cleanliness quality and of mechanical properties.
Cleavage Fracture
A fracture, usually of a polycrystalline metal, in which most of the grains
have failed by cleavage, resulting in bright reflecting facets. It is one
type of crystalline fracture and is associated with low-energy brittle
A rupture (internal or external) in ingot, bloom, billet, slabs, etc.,
caused by thermal stresses.
Removing the fash.
Reducing the diameter of a tube, ring or hollow forging by pressing or
hammering on a mandrel.
Coal Preheating
A method of coal preparation :the coal is dried and preheated before
charging it into coke ovens. The major advantages are : improvement in
strength and hardness of coke, usage of poorer quality coals, increase in
oven throughput because of reduction in coking time, reduction in overall
fuel requirements, more uniform heating of the batteries, and less thermal
shock to the refractory brickwork.
The process of covering steel with another material (tin, chrome, zinc
etc.), primarily for corrosion resistance. They can be classified as
anodic, cathodic, inert or inhibitive.
Coating Weight
1. In the Sheet Mill, the amount of Zinc on a galvanized sheet measured in
ounces per square foot.
2. Specified in pounds (or parts thereof) of tin coating per base box. This
term is often misunderstood because in most cases the decimal point is
omitted when written or printed.
Coating Weight Test
A test of the weight of the coating measured 2 inches from each side of the
strip and at the center.
Cogging (Roughing)
The action of reducing, by hot working, an ingot into a bloom or slab for
subsequent rolling or forging.
Steel sheet that has been wound. A slab, once rolled in a hot-strip mill,
is more than one-quarter mile long; coils are the most efficient way to
store and transport sheet steel.
The process of laying or winding the product in the form of coils
Coiled Bar
A long length of hot rolled bar produced in a continuous rolling mill and
coiled in a manner similar to wire rod.
Coil Breaks
1. A physical condition produced in the cooling tower or quench tank area
of the line due to improper temperature control during cooling.
2. Creases or ridges which appear as parallel lines, transverse to the
direction of rolling, and which generally extend across the width of the
3. A discontinuous curvature in the strip in the direction in which the
material was rolled or uncoiled. Generally found in uncoiled hot rolled
Coil End
ID of a coil that is left because of a defect. Ranging from 500 – 10,000
pounds. Anything 10,000 pounds and over get an IPM. A coil with a weight
less than 5000 lbs. that does not meet customer specifications is called a
salvage coil. These coils do not get an IPM number
Coil Line Markings
A light white-gray mark (square, circle, line, diamond, etc.) which has
been placed on the strip by the platers. This mark serves as an indication
to the feeder that the placement of the coil on the entry reel must be
placed correctly to meet customer specifications (external customers
request this mark to distinguish coating on the strip). The Feeder must
refer to the scheduling book to determine how to place the coil on the
entry reel for over or under wind.
Coil Number
Produced IPM Number assigned to a coil. IPM (In Process Material) Number.
Coil Set
A curvature of the strip in the lengthwise sense, parallel to the direction
in which the strip was rolled or uncoiled.
Sizing a forging to close tolerances under a suitable press or hammer.
What The basic fuel consumed in blast furnaces in the smelting of iron. It
is a hard porous substance that is principally pure carbon. Coke is a
processed form of coal, made in oven by driving off volatile elements. In
blast furnaces, coke helps generate the 3000o F temperatures and reducing
gases needs to smelt iron ore. About 1,000 pounds of coke are needed to
process a ton of pig iron, an amount which represents more than 50% of an
integrated steel mill's total energy use. 
Why Metallurgical coal burns sporadically and reduces into a sticky mass.
Processed coke, however, burns steadily inside and out, and is not crushed
by the weight of the iron ore in the blast furnace. 
How Inside the narrow confines of the coke oven, coal is heated without
oxygen for 18 hours to drive off gases and impurities. 
Types There are three principal kinds of coke, classified according to the
methods by which they are manufactured : Low, medium and high-temperature
coke, Coke used for metallurgical purposes must be carbonized in the higher
ranges of temperature (between 900o and 1095o) if the product is to have
satisfactory physical properties. Even with good coking coal, the product
obtained by low-temperature carbonization between 450o and 760o is
unacceptable for good blast furnace operation.
Coke Oven Battery
A set of ovens that process coal into coke. Coke ovens are constructed in
batteries of 10-100 ovens that maybe 20 feet tall, 40 feet long, and less
than two feet wide. Coke batteries, because of the exhaust fumes emitted
when coke is pushed from the ovens, often are the dirtiest area of a steel
mill complex.
Coke Oven Gas
A by-product of coke manufacture, it is produced during the carbonization
or destructive distillation of bituminous coal in the absence of air in the
coke ovens. Approximately 310 cbm CO gas is produced per MT of coal coked
in conventional high-temperature coking processes.
Cold Drawing
Reducing the cross-sectional area of a tube, when cold, by drawing through
a die. The tubes are occasionally pushed through the die.
Cold Reduction
What Finishing mills roll cold coils of pickled hot-rolled sheet to make
the steel thinner, smoother, and stronger, by applying pressure, rather
than heat. 
How Stands of rolls in a cold-reduction mill are set very close together
and press a sheet of steel from one-quarter inch thick into less than an
eighth of an inch, while more than doubling its length.
Cold Reduction Mill
Sheet and strip are cold reduced to the desired thickness for the following
1) To obtain the desired surface.
2) To impart desired mechanical properties.
3) To make gauges lighter than the hot strip mill can produce economically.

4) To produce sheet and strip of more uniform thickness.
Cold Roll Base
Coils that are cold worked or reduced to gauge on the tandem mill.
Cold-Rolled Strip (Sheet)
A product manufactured from hot rolled descaled (pickled) coils by cold
reducing to the desired thickness, generally followed by annealing and
temper rolling. Strip has a final product width of approximately 12 inches,
while sheet may be more than 80 inches wide. Cold-rolled sheet is
considerably thinner and stronger than hot-rolled sheet, so it will sell
for a premium (see Sheet Steel). If the sheet is not annealed after cold
reduction it is known as full hard. (See Full Hard Cold Rolled).
Cold Rolling (Cold Reduction)
Rolling steel (generally sheet or strip) below its recrystallization
temperature with the degree of reduction being usually above 5%.
Cold Rolling Mill
A mill that reduces the cross sectional area of the metal by rolling at
approximately room temperature.
Cold Shut (Teeming Arrest)
An ingot or casting defect resulting from interrupted flow of metal during
pouring, causing a discontinuity in the skin.
Cold Sinking
Reducing the cross-sectional area and diameter of a tube by drawing when
cold through a die.
Cold Strip Mill
A mill that rolls strip without first reheating.
Cold Work
Plastic deformation at such temperatures and rates that substantial
increases occur in the strength and hardness of the metal visible
structural changes include changes in grain shape and, in some instances,
mechanical twinning or banding. The forces are relatively insensitive to
the rate of application of loads and to temperature variations, but the
basic strength of the worked metal is permanently increased.
Cold Working (Rolling)
What Substantial mechanical working (usually above 5%), for example,
drawing, rolling, forging, etc. of a metal or alloy below its normal
recrystallization temperature. 
Why To create a permanent increase in the hardness and strength of the
How The application of forces to the steel causes changes in the
composition that enhance certain properties. In order for these
improvements to be sustained, the temperature must be below a certain
range, because the structural changes are eliminated by higher
Part of a forging having a diameter greater than the adjacent portions but
of a length less than its diameter.
Columnar Structure
A coarse structure of parallel elongated grains formed by unidirectional
growth that is most often observed in castings. This results from
diffusional growth accompanied by a solid state transformation.
Combined Blowing
Also called top and bottom blowing or mixed blowing, this process is
characterized by both a top blowing lance and a method of achieving
stirring from the bottom. The configurational differences in mixed blowing
lie principally in the bottom tuyeres or elements. These range from fully
cooled tuyeres, to uncooled tuyeres, to permeable elements.
Combined Carbon
That part of the total carbon in steel or cast iron present as other than
free carbon.
Commercial Quality
Material of normally good quality for which limits of chemical composition
and mechanical properties are more relaxed.
Commercial Tolerance
A range by which a product’s specifications can deviate from those
ordered and still meet the industry accepted ranges (defined in ASTM
Standards, etc.)
Condenser Tubes
Tubes used in the conversion of a vapour into a liquid by cooling.
Measures the physical use of steel by end users. Steel consumption
estimates, unlike steel demand figures, account for changes in inventories.
Contact Rolls
Metal rolls that are used in the chemical treatment area. Electricity goes
through these rolls.
Continuous Anneal
A process by which the steel is rapidly heated, soaked and cooled at a
confirmed rate by passing the coil at a relatively high speed through a
furnace consisting of numerous sections.
Continuous Casting
What A method of pouring steel directly from the furnace into a
semi-finished product such as billet, bloom, or slab directly from its
molten form. It bypasses the traditional process of pouring (teeming)
molten steel into ingots, reheating those ingots, and then rolling them
into semi-finished steel shapes.
Why Continuous casting avoids the need for large, expensive mills for
rolling ingots into slabs. Continuous cast slabs also solidify in a few
minutes versus several hours for an ingot. Because of this, the chemical
composition and mechanical properties are more uniform. This process has
steadily displaced ingot casting due to its advantages of higher yield and
improved productivity.
How Steel from the BOF or electric furnace is poured into a tundish (a
shallow vessel that looks like a bathtub) atop the continuous caster. As
steel carefully flows from the tundish down into the water-cooled copper
mould of the caster, it solidifies into a ribbon of red-hot steel. At the
bottom of the caster, torches cut the continuously flowing steel to form
slabs or blooms.
Continuous Sheet Galvanizing
A continuous process used to produce a zinc coating on steel sheet by
immersion in a bath of molten zinc. Controlled wiping of the coating after
galvanizing produces thin uniform coatings of zinc (with no alloy layers),
usually 15 to 20 um (0.6 - 0.8 mils) thick. The coating is sufficiently
ductile to withstand deep drawing or bending.
Continuous Variable Crown
Hydraulic system that supplies the force to all the cylinders associated
with work-roll balance and bending and back-up roll balance (also supplies
force for work roll shifting).
Continuous Weld Process (Fretz-Moon Process)
A process for making welded steel tubes in which a continuous strip is
passed (by joining the ends of the coils) through a tunnel furnace, from
which it emerges at welding temperature to enter a series of rolls which
form it into a tube and weld the abutting edges together. The resulting
continuous tube is cut to the desired length.
Contraction Cavity
A cavity formed in an ingot as a result of contraction during
solidification. Also referred to as shrinkage cavity or pipe usually
located in the hot-top region of killed steel.
Controlled Rolling
A hot rolling process in which the temperature of steel is closely
controlled, particularly during the final rolling passes to produce a fine
grain microstructure.
Conversion Cost
Resources spent to process material in a single stage, from one type to
another. The costs of converting iron ore to hot metal or pickling
hot-rolled coil can be isolated for analysis.
Demand from steel customers such as rerollers and tube makers, which
process steel into a more finished state, such as pipe, tubing and
cold-rolled strip, before selling it to end users. Such steel generally is
not sold on contract, making the converter segment of the mills' revenues
more price sensitive than their supply contracts to the auto manufacturers.
The pear shaped refractory lined (acid or basic) vessel in which the
pneumatic steel making processes are carried-out. The vessel is mounted
suitably for tilting for introducing the liquid material and taking out the
blown material. The air, oxygen, carbon dioxide, steam or a mixture of
these, is blown through a detachable bottom, side or top.
Coppered Wire
A wire produced by wet drawing with a copper sulphate or copper tin
sulphate solutions for improving drawability. The colour depends upon the
chemical used and the drawing operation imparts a luster to the wire
resulting into improved appearance and limited corrosion resistance.
Inside diameter of a coil.
(1) In a ferrous alloy that has undergone case hardening, that portion of
the alloy structure not part of case (see case). Typically considered to be
the portion that (a) appears light when etched, (b) has an unaltered
chemical composition or (c) has a hardness value lower than that of the
(2) A specifically formed material inserted in a mould to shape the
interior or other part of a casting that can not be shaped as easily by the
Core Loss
The quantity, expressed in watts per kilogram in SI and watts per pound in
FPS system, can be defined as the electrical energy that is expended in the
core steel without contributing to the work of the device. The two
components of core loss are eddy current loss and hysteresis loss.
What COREX is a smelting reduction process in which coal is directly used
in a melter gasifier as an energy carrier and reducing agent thereby
eliminating the need for a blast furnace, sinter plant and coke ovens. It
yields hot metal or pig iron that can be used by integrated mills or EAF
How The process gasifies non-coking coal in a smelting reactor, which also
produces liquid iron. The gasified coal is fed into a shaft furnace, where
it removes oxygen from iron ore lumps, pellets or sinter; the reduced iron
is then fed to the smelting reactor.
Corrective Leveling
Capability of a leveling machine to remove or reduce shape defects across
the strip, coil, or sheet, in addition to flattening lengthwise curvatures.
Generally employs 17 to 23 small diameter rolls with adjustable back ups
for varying nest across face of machine.
The gradual degradation or alteration of steel caused by chemical or
electrochemical attack due to atmosphere, moisture, or other agents.
Corrosion Fatigue
Cracking produced by the combined action of repeated or fluctuating stress
and a corrosive environment at lower stress levels or fewer cycles than
would be required in the absence of a corrosive environment.
Corrosion Resistance
The intrinsic ability of a material to resist degradation by corrosion.
This ability can be enhanced by application of special coatings on the
surface of the material or by imparting certain structural changes in the
material by addition of alloying elements.
Corrosive Wear
Wear in which chemical or electrochemical reaction with the environment is
Coupling Tubes (Coupler Tubes)
Tubes of suitable dimensions for the production of couplings.
Cracked Edges (Broken Corners)
Discontinuity or cracked condition on the edge (at right angles to the
direction of rolling) of rolled products. The term 'broken corners' is used
in connection with large sections, such as blooms, billets and slabs.
A coating defect consisting of a break in the cured film which exposes the
bare substrate. Cracking usually occurs during fabrication of the coated
plate when the coating is too brittle or the adhesion is too low.
A coating defect consisting of small, apparently uncoated, spots of coated
plate consisting of a very thin film of coating which was contaminated by
oil, silicone, or foreign matter. Eyeholing is similar to cratering, but
with metal exposure in the crater.
A coating defect consisting of a lack of adhesion to, or dewetting of, the
substrate while the coating or ink is wet. The cause is due to a difference
in surface tension of the coating and substrate. Crawling is also known as
cissing and dewetting.
Crazing (Surface Crazing)
Markings on ingot or ingot mould surface in the form of a network, in a
mosaic pattern giving the appearance of crocodile skin.
Time-dependent strain, occurring under stress. The creep strain occurring
at a diminishing rate is called primary or transient creep; that occurring
at a minimum and almost constant rate, secondary or steady-rate creep; that
occurring at an accelerating rate, tertiary creep. It is more marked at
elevated temperatures and is, therefore, important in connection with metal
and alloys for service at high temperature.
Creep Recovery
The time-dependent decrease in strain in a solid, following the removal of
force. Recovery is usually determined at constant temperature.
Crimped Edge
A damaged edge due to the strip wandering side-to-side into obstructions as
it moves down the line.
Critical Cooling Rate
Minimum rate of continuous cooling for preventing undesirable
transformations. For steel, unless specified, it is the slowest rate at
which austenite can be cooled from above critical temperature to prevent
its transformation above the martensite start temperature.
Cropped Head / Tail
Squaring of the strips by use of mechanical shear.
Shearing off discard from the ends of an ingot or bloom or forged products
prior to further working. End discard shearing of semi-finished or finished
products is also called cropping.
A curvature across the width of the strip at a 90o angle to the direction
in which the strip has been rolled or uncoiled.
Cross Breaks
1. Creases which appear as parallel lines transverse to the direction of
2. Quality defect on the edge of plate coming to the line (broken steel but
not open breaks).
3. Hard spots caused by abrupt deformation of the strip after hot rolling
and due to stressing beyond the elastic limit of the metal.
Cross Rolling
Rolling in the direction transverse to the longitudinal axis of the ingot
or slab, as in the production of plate or sheet.
1. The difference in thickness between the edge and center of the strip.
2. Thickened center of a strip of steel; can also have a crown on the work
roll; two-point crown on a roll means a crown of 0.002 inches.
3. The crown, or center, refers to the tendency of a sheet to be heavier in
gauge in the center than on the edges. It may be caused by the use of
hollow, or worn back-up rolls, work rolls improperly ground, or excessive
work in the last finishing stand.
Crucible Process
A steel making process in which the charge, generally small (roughly 20 to
25 kg), is melted in a crucible for the production of very high quality
steel out of contact with fuel. The product, known as crucible steel, is
used for making tool steels.
Crucible Steel
Steel made by the crucible process.
Cryogenic Steel
Steels, such as 9% nickel steel and the austenitic stainless steels, are
capable of retaining toughness in applications involving the storing and
handling of liquefied methane, oxygen, nitrogen, argon, hydrogen and helium
to –273o.
Culvert Pipe
Heavy gauge, galvanized steel that is spiral-formed or riveted into
corrugated pipe, which is used for highway drainage applications.
An internal transverse crack in the wire which may result in fracture of
the cup and cone type. It may be caused by excessive cold work or by
segregation where the harder section is less ductile than the surface.
Cure Time
Full polymerization is a function of time and temperature.
The process by which synthetic materials form continuous films by various
combinations of oxidation, solvent evaporation and heat of polymerization
according to their basic resin structures.
Cut Edge
The normal edge that results from the shearing, slitting or trimming of a
mill edge.
A pair of blades either machined in the corner of dies or inserted in the
dies, used to cut away forging from the bar.
Process to uncoil sections of flat-rolled steel and cut them into a desired
length. Product that is cut to length is normally shipped flat-stacked.
Cycle Annealing
An annealing process that uses a predetermined and closely controlled time
temperature cycle to produce specific properties or microstructure.
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