Pack Carburizing
The steel is packed in boxes with carbonaceous solids, sealed to exclude
the atmosphere, and heated to about 927oC for a period of time depending
upon the depth of case desired. A time of about 8 hours at 927oC results in
a case depth of about 1.6mm.
Pack Rolling
Rolling two or more sheets at a time, in one pack.
Two sheets hot-rolled together.
Paper Drum
Paper insert placed on the reel around which the coil is wound. The drum is
used to eliminate damage in the center of the coil. Certain customers may
require that coils are to be shipped with this paper drum.
Passivated Tin Plate
Tin plate that has been chemically treated to control tin oxide formation
and growth.
Passivation Treatment
See Chemical Treatment.
Parting Line (Die line)
The dividing plane between the faces of a pair of dies.
Peg (Stopper)
A block placed to keep the forging tools at a minimum distance.
Separation of the zinc coating from the steel strip.
(See Agglomerating Process.)
A type of resin made from a condensation reaction of phenols and aldehydes.
Resultant films have a high degree of chemical resistance with limited
flexibility properties.
See Bonderized Coating.
Phosphide Streak
An elongated area of segregated phosphide which revealed on etching.
Piano Wire (Music Wire)
A very high quality high carbon, patented drawn and polished wire having a
tensile strength in excess of 190 kgf/mm2 and generally in size of 1.6 mm
dia and finer. The term music wire also includes wire intended for
Pickle Stain
Surface stain after pickling due to inadequate washing and drying
What Process that cleans a steel coil of its rust, dirt and oil so that
further work can be done to the metal. 
Why When hot-rolled coils cool, rust forms on the unprotected metal; often
coils are stored or transported while exposed to outside air and water. 
How Through a continuous chemical or electrochemical process, the steel is
uncoiled and sent through a series of hydrochloric acid baths that remove
the oxides (rust). The steel sheet is then rinsed and dried.
Making a hole with a tapered and pointed tool without removal of metal.
Pigging Back
Introduction of carbon in the steel bath by the addition of pig iron.
Piling (Sheet Piling)
A structural steel product with edges designed to interlock; used in the
construction of cofferdams or riverbank reinforcement.
1. Technically a tube used to transport fluids or gases. However, pipe and
tube are often used interchangeably in steel lexicon, with a given label
applied primarily as a matter of historical use. 
2. An axial cavity caused by contraction during solidification of an ingot.
Also the defects arising from the axial cavity on the semi-finished or
finished products.
Surface disturbances which result from the rolling process and which
ordinarily appear as fernlike ripples running diagonally across the
direction of rolling.
Pinch Rolls
While preparing the coils for processing, the lead edge of the strip is
manually engaged in a set of small pinch rolls which can be opened and
closed by air pressure and which are usually motor driven. The function of
these rolls is to permit the operator to advance the lead edge of a new
coil into the welding assembly.
Pin-hole Detector
Device based on photoelectric cell which continuously scan, identify and
tabulate the number of pin holes in a coil.
A coating defect consisting of the randomly spaced small round holes (as a
straight pin would make in the cured film, which quite often occur in large
numbers. The open area (pinhole) usually exposes bare substrate.
Contaminated substrate or improperly dispersed lubricant or additive may
cause pinholes. Pinholes are typically caused by laminations, inclusions,
scratches or gouges.
Pipe (Contraction Cavity, Shrinkage Cavity)
An axial cavity caused by contraction during solidification of an ingot.
Also the defect arising from the axial cavity in semi-finished or finished
Pit Sample (Ladle Sample)
The sample taken from a cast during teeming into moulds, for determining
the chemical composition of the cast.
A coating defect consisting of randomly spaced small depressions in the
cured film. Pitting is similar to pinholing, except that pits do not expose
the bare substrate.
Improving the surface by the action of chill cast or hardened steel rolls
or by hammering with smooth faced hammer.
Plastic Deformation
Permanent deformation occurring in forming of metal which occurs after
elastic limits have been exceeded.
The property that enables a material to undergo plastic deformation without
Plastic Working
The permanent deformation accomplished by applying mechanical forces to a
metal surface. The primary objective of such working is usually the
production of a specific shape or / and size or the improvement of certain
physical properties of the metal.
A hot or cold rolled flat product, rolled from an ingot or slab in
rectangular cross section with a width 600mm and above and a thickness 5mm
and above (going upto one foot). (See Sheet Steel).
An operating unit which electrolytically applies zinc, chrome or tin to
black plate.
Plugged Steel
It is a rimming steel poured in a bottle shaped mould with a central plug.
The rimming action is arrested when the metal rises and comes in contact
with the bottle portion of the mould and the central plug.
A material with graphite as the primary constituent, used for its
In tribology, the formation of grooves by plastic deformation of the softer
of two surfaces in relative motion.
A mechanical, chemical, or electrolytic process or combination thereof used
to prepare a smooth, reflective surface suitable for micro-structural
examination that is free of artifacts or damage introduced during prior
sectioning or grinding.
Porter Bar
The tool used to hold the ingot or bloom during forging.
To paint a manufactured part after it has been formed.
A problem encountered in the field where the iron-zinc coating (from
Galvanneal products) comes off the base metal and collects in the die.
Powder Injection
Powdered desulphurizing materials such as magnesium-flourspar (Mag-Spar),
calcium silicide (Cal-Sil) or prefused calcium aluminate, are injected with
a single or a double-port lance deep into the steel bath in the ladle with
argon flowing at rates in the range 0.9-1.8 nm3/min for ladle refining of
Powdered Iron
The sponge iron in the purified granular form. It is used in the
manufacture of many useful articles articles by the metallurgy where (1)
iron powders are first compacted by pressure alone into the approximate
shape of the finished article; (2) the compact is then 'sintered' at a
temperature ranging between approximately 950 and 1095o C in furnaces
provided with a protective atmosphere to prevent oxidation; and (3) the
sintered articles are then pressed or machined to their final shape.
Powder Metals
Fabrication technology in which fine metallic powder is compacted under
high pressure and then heated at a temperature slightly below the melting
point to solidify the material. Primary users of powder metal parts are
auto, electronics and aerospace industries.
Precipitation Hardening (PH)
Hardening due to the precipitation of a constituent from a super-saturated
solid solution upon quenching and then holding at a prescribed temperature
below transformational range. A small group of stainless steels with high
chromium and nickel content, with the most common types having
characteristics close to those of martensitic (plain chromium stainless
class with exceptional strength) steels. Heat treatment provides this class
with its very high strength and hardness. Applications for PH stainless
steels include shafts for pumps and valves as well as aircraft parts.
To paint a product in coil form and then manufacture it into a final part.
Press Forming
See Brake Press Bending.
Steel to which a chemical treatment has been applied to prepare it for
future surface treatments such as painting. (See Bonderized, Light Special
Treatment and Special Treatment).
Prime Coil
Any coil produced by the line that is not held for any out-of-spec or
quality reasons.
Process Annealing
A heat treatment used to soften metal for further cold working. In ferrous
sheet and wire industries, heating to a temperature close to but below the
lower limit of the transformation range and subsequent cooling for working.
In the non-ferrous industries, heating above the recrystalization
temperatures at a time and temperature sufficient to permit the desired
subsequent cold working.
Process Control System
The general form of a process control system is one in which a multiplicity
of inputs, such as the physical and chemical characteristics of the raw
materials, the energy levels, the machine settings, and so forth are used
to provide desired outputs such as product quality, productivity, and
minimum cost, or some selected combination of these. In addition, there may
be other outputs required; for example, processing information for
supporting functions such as accounting and evaluation.
Producer Gas
Producer gas is manufactured by blowing an insufficient supply of air for
complete combustion, with or without the admixture of steam, through a
thick, hot, sold-fuel bed. A large proportion of the original heating value
of the solid fuel is recovered in the potential heat of carbon monoxide,
hydrogen, tarry vapours, and some hydrocarbons, and in the sensible heat of
the composite gas which also contains carbon dioxide and nitrogen.
Progressive Aging
Aging by increasing the temperature in steps or continuously during the
aging cycle. Compare with interrupted aging and step aging.
Prompt Industrial Scrap
The scrap generated by steel consumers in making their products. It may
consist of the unwanted portions of plate or sheet that has been cut or
sheared to the desired final size and shape, trimmings resulting from
stamping and pressing operations, machine turnings, rejected products
scrapped during manufacture, short ends, flash from forgings, and other
types of scrap.
Puddling Furnace
The process used for the production of wrought iron, pig iron and cast iron
by means of chemical action. This process was invented in 1780. The older
process, dry puddling, is known as Cort's Process and the newer, wet
puddling or pig boiling, is known as Hall's Process.
An irregular transverse crack on the face of an ingot caused by restriction
to free contraction during cooling in the mould.
Peritectic Grade
Crack sensitive grade of steel with .08 to .16% Carbon.
1. An operating unit that removes iron oxide from a hot rolled product by
immersion into a hydrochloric or sulfuric acid solution.
2. The pickler tank contains 5-6% concentrations of sulfuric acid. This
solution is kept at a temperature of 180-190o F. The purpose of the pickler
is to complete the preparation of the steel for plating, by removing any
oxides from the surface.
Pig Iron
The name for the melted iron produced in a blast furnace, containing a
large quantity of carbon (above 1.5%, usually between 3% to 4.5%), along
with silicon, manganese, phosphorus, and sulphur in varying amounts
depending upon the quality of raw materials used and solidified in moving
metal moulds of a Pig Casting Machine. Pig iron is used in the foundry or
for conversion into steel. Named long ago when molten iron was poured
through a trench in the ground to flow into shallow earthen holes, the
arrangement looked like newborn pigs suckling. The central channel became
known as the "sow," and the moulds were "pigs."
Pulverized Coal Injection System (PCI)
A blast furnace enhancement to reduce an integrated mill's reliance on coke
(because of environmental problems with its production). Up to 30% of the
coke charged into the blast furnace can be replaced by this talcum-like
coal powder, which is injected through nozzles at the bottom of the
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